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Function of capacitor


In a DC circuit, a capacitor is equivalent to an open circuit. A capacitor is a device that can store electric charges and is also one of the commonly used electronic components.

This starts with the structure of the capacitor. A simple capacitor is composed of electrode plates at both ends and an insulating dielectric (including air) in the middle. After electrification, the electrode plate is electrified, forming a voltage (potential difference). However, due to the insulating material in the middle, the entire capacitor is not conductive. However, such a situation occurs without exceeding the critical voltage (breakdown voltage) of the capacitor. We know that any material is relatively insulated. When the voltage across the material increases to a certain extent, the material can conduct electricity. We call this voltage the breakdown voltage. Capacitors are no exception. When a capacitor is broken down, it is not an insulator. However, in the middle school stage, such voltages are not visible in the circuit, so they all operate below the breakdown voltage and can be seen as insulators.

However, in AC circuits, the direction of the current changes as a function of time. The process of charging and discharging a capacitor is time dependent, and at this time, a variable electric field is formed between the electrode plates, which is also a function of time. In fact, current flows through capacitors in the form of an electric field.

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The principle of supercapacitors

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1. Detection of small capacitors below 10pF: Because the capacity of fixed capacitors below 10pF is too small, using a multimeter to measure can only qualitatively check whether there is leakage, internal short circuit, or breakdown. When measuring, a multimeter R can be selected × At 10k gear, use two probes to arbitrarily connect the two pins of the capacitor, and the resistance value should be always high. If the measured resistance value (pointer swinging to the right) is zero, it indicates that the capacitor is damaged due to leakage or internal breakdown.


What are the classifications of capacitors?

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Function of capacitor

In a DC circuit, a capacitor is equivalent to an open circuit. A capacitor is a device that can store electric charges and is also one of the commonly used electronic components.